185-187; Chang et al. While wildfires could in some cases be considered a negative impact on habitat as well as on individuals, wildfires may also have positive impacts on whitebark pine depending on severity and extent (e.g., they may create spaces for seed-caching and eliminate competition from shade-tolerant species) (Keane and Parsons 2010, p. 57; Service 2018, pp. Several management and restoration plans have been developed for specific regions or jurisdictions to address the task of conserving and restoring this widespread, long-lived species (Service 2018, p. 112). documents in the last year, 43 On April 25, 2014, the District Court for the District of Montana upheld our finding that listing the whitebark pine was warranted but precluded. Conversely, whitebark pine cannot survive high-severity fires; during such fires, all age and size classes can be killed. Our conclusions in the SSA report, which form the basis for the determination below, are based upon the best available scientific and commercial data. Endangered Species Statistics. These factors represent broad categories of natural or human-caused actions or conditions that could have an effect on a species' continued existence. May 29, 2019, 8:01 pm. The designation of critical habitat does not affect land ownership or establish a refuge, wilderness, reserve, preserve, or other conservation area. Conservation measures provided to species listed as endangered or threatened species under the Act include recognition, recovery actions, requirements for Federal protection, and prohibitions against certain practices. We focused on these four stressors because, according to the best available data, these stressors are the leading factors attributed to the decline of whitebark pine (Keane and Arno 1993, p. 44; Tomback et al. 2012, p. 26). _g1.setAttribute('src', _g1.getAttribute('data-src') ); on NARA's archives.gov. However, white pine blister rust will likely continue to spread throughout the species' range in the future, reducing available seed source and recruitment into the future. With a population of around 84 individuals, The status of Amur leopard from East Russia is Critically Endangered subspecies. This proposed 4(d) rule would apply only if and when the Service makes final the listing of the whitebark pine as a threatened species. In addition, populations need to maintain a sufficient density of reproductive adults for pollen dispersal and pollen clouds to facilitate masting, and to attract Clark's nutcrackers (Service 2018, pp. The Service prepared an SSA report for whitebark pine (Service 2018). Rangewide, whitebark pine occurs on an estimated 32,616,422 hectares (ha) (80,596,935 acres (ac)) in western North America. We note that our projections are based on long-term geospatial data sets and a large body of empirical data, and the scenarios chosen encompass the full range of conditions that could plausibly occur. (2) Exception s from prohibitions. The peer reviewers had expertise in whitebark pine's biology, habitat management, genetics, and stressors. Inventory, monitoring, and mapping of whitebark pine stands are critical for assessing the current status and implementing strategic conservation strategies. Recovery plans also establish a framework for agencies to coordinate their recovery efforts and provide estimates of the cost of implementing recovery tasks. Conservation measures for whitebark pine can generally be categorized as Start Printed Page 77422either protection (of existing healthy trees and stands) or restoration (of damaged, unhealthy, or extirpated trees and stands). To achieve recovery of these species requires cooperative conservation efforts on private, State, and Tribal lands. There are very high chances of genetic endangerment of these species if any disease catches them. However, when conditions are favorable (abundant hosts and favorable climate), mountain pine beetle populations can erupt to epidemic levels and create stand-replacing events that may kill 80 to 95 percent of suitable host trees (Berryman 1986 as cited in Keane et al. Overall, whitebark pine stands have seen severe reductions in reproduction Start Printed Page 77415and regeneration because of these stressors, thus resulting in a reduction in resiliency and therefore their ability to withstand stochastic events.

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