Thus the most eastern island, idea here is to get the student thinking about the logic of the problem, not its ultimate answer. There can be other reasonable solutions. With the kind permission of Academic Press, London. On a phylogenetic tree, early ancestry is expressed by low branches The Download a pdf version.. 0000001036 00000 n 20 million years, gradually forming the islands as it moves. Testing ecological and phylogenetic hypotheses in microevolutionary studies. 0000029441 00000 n Oceanic currents in this region mitochondrial DNA. polymorphisms of mitochondrial DNA. low numbers of base pair differences 1994. Map 2 redrawn from the Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 49:219–227: R.S. There are 21 possible pairings, each team member selects five pairings other than 1/2. 0000003446 00000 n However, climate, proximity to other land masses, and of course, chance. answer. west of the African continent (Map 1). Gran Canaria appears to have the oldest ancestry, although atlantica is actually closer to 0000021199 00000 n 0000009849 00000 n species and populations. investigation. Lanzarote, is oldest, while the smaller western island, Hierro, is the youngest, about 0.8 Each person will be responsible for counting all Science-NL, Sara Burgerhartstraat 25, 1055 KV Amsterdam, The Netherlands. �� 9!q�n�����$��=3�S�΋[�/�hb�xwv=�̛6��8�)�q�gSd�a`�x&o(_�l�Lp�„��p���0�c2�����0CX�3O����w���|5z=~s:�8yW��U5_�/��_ܖ�����⦚1�p����jy�z�\��G��lzw����K�#Ȕq���)�>|�Z��6]�ύ.�NMv:W�*f���Y}��ó5�(�����5Z����h�l�"�t�I��=�=C�)���~I�L>곂"���1�q��a�xT^��[oa����/���� (:G��2�n| �}�A�Lr '�5�`CȐCZ{X� 顏M��*޶�G �?~����V嬺n9}q��Ӷ�#B�w��8���#��OC 1) Which island is most likely to have been colonized first and which last? the interdisciplinary nature of modern science. He felt that because Tenerife is moist and lush W. Wuster. Academic Press, Eggleton and R. Vane-Wright (eds. Thorpe tested two populations on Tenerife to see out as lifeless masses of rock emerging from the sea. Describe how they are different. Numbers imply 0 Biogeography is split into two areas: ecological biogeography, which is concerned with current distribution patterns and historical biogeography, which is concerned with long-term and large-scale … The basic scheme is that Students utilize real data from real scientists. *�&�� uz�G��q� oy��c��W��!+�N0d��R��ŕ6�%�����z_�HOד5JM���{� ���Ƨ�|���.������XV��v^M�k�l���E�-'Yi��C�������ߚ {:���,�� of strips side by side to count the differences. H��V�n�0��;��Pԟ>��(�� ;ĵ�S1���c�D9J����C�آD��GR����������N�������F��f@����fw4~�z^��� Institute on Biology. Either may be a source for new colonization. 0000001774 00000 n populations are listed as one. Background — Figure 1 (left) illustrates one of the many populations of lizards living on 189–206. The easiest way to make accurate counts is to Return to top. For purposes of this publication, I have placed the student activity in the beginning followed As an extension, have students investigate the currents along the Portugal coast. Map 1 redrawn from the Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 30:155–162: F. Anguita ISLAND BIOGEOGRAPHY AND EVOLUTION: SOLVING A PHYLOGENETIC PUZZLE WITH MOLECULAR GENETICS INTRODUCTION Ever since Charles Darwin formulated his hypothesis on how the finches of the Galapagos Islands evolved into 13 species, islands have been a prime target for the study of evolution. Pp. startxref The pairings are listed on Table 2 (download a pdf version). Return to top teams are done, the data will be checked for agreement. In any case, there are some general principles of island colonization: 1) The closer the island to another land mass, the higher the probability of colonization. McGregor, and A.M. Cumming. You should emphasize that answers may vary, but ), 1994: The Hierro. 0000021006 00000 n Gallotia galloti: four base endonuclease restriction of fragment length polymorphisms of R.S. 0000029083 00000 n This activity reinforces @ŋ��� �����BX~�5000�`(d���~��C �|cG���\lk�'3�8� ��aX�P�xF�� (� ��PX� x���e�R���� ��%�bFm ]��`�h�(��8���� ���1��%Z� � �B 0000003293 00000 n 189–206 in E.P. phylogenetic (family) tree of the three species and the three additional populations of G. Ecologists and geneticists have debated several hypotheses for years. = south Tenerife, G = gomera, and H = Hierro. geology and biological science. Population evolution of Canary Island Biogeography and Evolution For Teachers 9th - 12th High schoolers develop likely phylogenies for seven related populations of lizards living on the Canary Islands using real data. 0000010104 00000 n Biogeography 155 Summary Overview: This module deals primarily with the geogra-phy of the Kuril Islands and the constraints that this geography puts on the numbers and kinds of animals (including humans) that are able to inhabit the islands. Volcanic islands are particularly good laboratories for evolutionary science Compare it to the phylogeny chart you drew based on the geographic distances and geologic Refer to your last phylogeny chart using genetic similarities and differences found in Table 2. This is definitely for the more advanced or honors s The Canary Islands form an archipelago of seven volcanic islands just student thinking about the problems of understanding past and future evolution. 0000001593 00000 n 0000039496 00000 n vary with the seasons. Brown. criteria should really be: can the solution be logically explained and justified. It does not take into account actual currents which vary over time. 1993. Used under license from branches with the following population names: 1) Explain how the data in Table 1 (above) support your phylogeny diagram? Pairs with high numbers are said to have greater genetic genetic differences. 0000002988 00000 n 227. In other words, large numbers imply they are less genetically alike, have more distant ancestry, and have The information that follows is intended as a guide to solutions to the phylogenies based on of DNA for each of the seven populations. McGregor, A.M. Cumming, and W.C. Jordan. The arrival of the Gallotia lizards was probably by rafting 1a+1b+1c+1d is the sequence for Gallotia stehlini. Geochronology of some Canarian dike swarms: contribution to the volcano- cause river banks to collapse, carrying away both plants and clinging animals. ancestors to Gomera and the small lizards of Gomera are ancestors to the small lizards of Pangea was a super continent that existed on earth 300 million years ago. 115 0 obj <>stream Low numbers express more genetic similarity and imply more cut the paper into four strips and tape them end to end in the correct order, A to D. You will then compare pairs hypothesis. Branches that are far apart imply greater genetic distance. ), Phylogenetics and Ecology. real surprise here is not the evolution of the smaller forms, it is that stehlini on Their similarity to cladograms is more related to their ease in drawing. Only the last London. Finally, most questions on this assignment cannot be This unexpected surprise could support the hypothesis that the Gallotia lizard ancestor is European! Note that north and south Tenerife 0000010600 00000 n <]>> different directions. Microgeographic variation of the colour pattern of xڕY \׺�&���2%�3�w��n�T�� �!,��fX�C@��D�(*$��*Uk�V��V���>mk���7x�������{�>�f������_FB98P��u��UK�]�l�6R5���s��;ġ�0�̋��#��� ����M�(I� ��/�g�_&����m�;{P2�d����?v�^�� �ࢀ������ ��_��ݒ�z��{�8���O�b��pm�. %PDF-1.6 %���� Brown, M. Day, A. Malhotra, D.P. Rafts of natural vegetation are often washed out to sea when high river levels The solution at left uses DNA evidence from Table 2 (completed table below— or download a pdf version) to deduce genetic There are so. Return to top. McGregor, and A.M. Cumming. xref Piece together the puzzle pieces based on the distribution of fossils (match the fossil patterns to connect the land masses) to make Pangea. Thorpe, R.S., and R.P. 0000039168 00000 n 2) Using Map 2 (download a pdf version—includes Table 1 below) and your geographic reasoning, draw on a separate page a hypothetical 4) Geographic isolation reduces gene flow between populations. phylogeny based on both molecular genetics and biogeography has fewer variations and needs some serious solutions are provided below. 1986. similar activity on Galapagos Finches, but that proved to be too complex and DNA mapping For 0000039688 00000 n %%EOF In using body Biogeography is the study of the distribution of species in a geographic area. ���W��ؖ���������(�q�V ����c�*3C{��5�Os`�e��� ��~-��tG�ܹ��\�LI�vi#��e��2R)�AI�,�-4iR���4H��� }~#����6�~�G���� 1993. When all 0000030431 00000 n x�b```e``)�L�@(�������9�!d 5) Over time, colonial populations become genetically divergent from their parent population Pp. Radioisotope tagging eventually led to the sequencing of the samples Island codes in parentheses are P = Palma, NT = north Tenerife, ST 0000003142 00000 n Again, there is no one perfect Testing different types of data. Students apply the principles of evolution in their reasoning to make use of this data from Procedure — There are 21 different pair combinations possible using seven Thorpe , D.P. The trailer Each sequence consists of four lines, e.g., The phylogeny charts are intended to stimulate With the kind permission of Academic Press, London. At left is a possible solution using island distribution and morphology. been separated longer. due to natural selection, mutation, and/or genetic drift. recent common ancestry. evolution called “Evolution: A Context for Biology.” My original intent was to write a Though now modified, it was written as part of a biology module on Much of this is left to Eggleton and R. Vane-Wright (eds. Also, he wondered if Tenerife was supplying colonizing lizards from two Return to top. 0000001801 00000 n The scientifi c study of this relationship is called island biogeography. 0000038811 00000 n age of the islands. use this information to develop a final phylogeny chart. Colonization by airborne organisms, such as insects and birds, usually occurs during storms. •Lesson 10.1: Darwin and the Theory of Evolution •Lesson 10.2: Evidence for Evolution •Lesson 10.3: Microevolution and the Genetics of Populations •Lesson 10.4: Macroevolution and the Origin of Species 218 2) The older the island, the more likely it will be colonized. ecological and phylogenetic hypotheses in microevolutionary studies. by teacher information and my discussion of possible solutions. environment until a stable climax community is established. h��Xmo�H�+��Bٗ�ݵ�� if ecological differences were part of the story. 0000040126 00000 n million years old. %PDF-1.6 %���� The strength of the activity is its depth and interdisciplinary approach. Thorpe, R.S., D.P. separate the fragments. McGregor, and This could contradict the argument based on distance. (Data from Thorpe et al., 1994). 0000020548 00000 n Your teacher will demonstrate how to draw a phylogenetic tree. endstream endobj 363 0 obj <> endobj 364 0 obj <> endobj 365 0 obj <> endobj 366 0 obj <> endobj 367 0 obj <>stream is relatively constant, even though evolution rate is not. in the north while arid and barren in the south, populations on that island might have some The This activity originated at Princeton University in the 0000029186 00000 n Label your end data had yet to be published. 0000001487 00000 n It is considered the most reliable criterion to establish evolutionary kinship. Return to top, The final activity will be to use the results from the pairings to compare the differences, and summer of 1995 while I was a participant in the Woodrow Wilson National Foundation theorize that a geologic hot spot of upwelling magma has been drifting westward for the past

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