Length One isolated dorsal neural spine was moderately elongated and slender, indicating that Baryonyx may have had a hump or ridge along the centre of its back (though incipiently developed compared to those of other spinosaurids). testing behavioral inferences through comparisons with modern fish-eating tetrapods", "Convergent evolution of jaws between spinosaurid dinosaurs and pike conger eels", "A buoyancy, balance and stability challenge to the hypothesis of a semi-aquatic, "The "χ" of the Matter: Testing the Relationship between Paleoenvironments and Three Theropod Clades", "Calcium isotopes offer clues on resource partitioning among Cretaceous predatory dinosaurs", "Semi-aquatic adaptations in a spinosaur from the Lower Cretaceous of Brazil", "A review of Lower and Middle Cretaceous dinosaurs of England", "First report of amphibians and lizards from the Wealden (Lower Cretaceous) in England", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Baryonyx&oldid=986439398, Wikipedia articles published in peer-reviewed literature, Wikipedia articles published in WikiJournal of Science, Wikipedia articles published in peer-reviewed literature (W2J), Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from open access publications, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 31 October 2020, at 21:40. Baryonyx (/ ˌ b ær i ˈ ɒ n ɪ k s /) is a genus of theropod dinosaur which lived in the Barremian stage of the Early Cretaceous period, about 130–125 million years ago.The first skeleton was discovered in 1983 in the Weald Clay Formation of Surrey, England, and became the holotype specimen of Baryonyx walkeri, named by palaeontologists Alan J. Charig and Angela C. Milner in 1986. The specimen's disarticulation indicates it was transported from a more-terrestrial environment (since many bones are missing), but those found were close together. "Walker's Heavy Claw" 5 - 180( Adult: ). Bleed Damage( per Bite / Hit ) [75] The Papo Seco Formation of Portugal where Baryonyx has possibly been identified is composed of marl, representing a lagoon environment. They also noted that the two snouts from Niger (which later became the basis of Cristatusaurus), assigned to the family Spinosauridae by Taquet in 1984, appeared almost identical to that of Baryonyx and they referred them to Baryonychidae instead. Stats [27], In 1997, Charig and Milner noted that two fragmentary spinosaurid snouts from the Elrhaz Formation of Niger (reported by the French palaeontologist Philippe Taquet in 1984) were similar enough to Baryonyx that they considered them to belong to an indeterminate species of the genus (despite their much younger Aptian geological age). The claw would have been lengthened by a keratin (horny) sheath in life. [51] Kitchener argued that Baryonyx's jaws and teeth were too weak to kill other dinosaurs and too heavy to catch fish, with too many adaptations for piscivory. The occiput was narrow, with the paroccipital processes pointing outwards horizontally, and the basipterygoid processes were lengthened, descending far below the basioccipital (the lowermost bone of the occiput). 41.3 km/h49.6 km/h 1.5 h, 90 m ( 0.2 - 0.5 )( Adult: ) . Place [51] According to the Irish palaeontologist Robin E. H. Reid, a scavenged carcass would have been broken up by its predator and large animals capable of doing so—such as grizzly bears—are also capable of catching fish (at least in shallow water). These adaptations may have been the result of a dietary change from terrestrial prey to fish. [1] In their 1997 article they found no skeletal support for this, but maintained that the forelimbs would have been strong enough for a quadrupedal posture and it would probably have caught aquatic prey while crouching—or on all fours—near (or in) water. [28] The American palaeontologist Paul Sereno and colleagues named the new genus and species Suchomimus tenerensis later in 1998, based on more complete fossils from the Elrhaz Formation. It probably used its teeth and claws as weapons for procuring food. This aquatic predator is a relative to the Spino and Sucho and appears in films such as Ice Age as Rudy or in Fallen Kingdom. 190 - 1.450 kg [61] In 2016, Sales and colleagues statistically examined the fossil distribution of spinosaurids, abelisaurids, and carcharodontosaurids, and concluded that spinosaurids had the strongest support for association with coastal palaeoenvironments. Olfaction may have been more useful for spinosaurids that also fed on terrestrial prey, such as baryonychines. The other claws of the hand were much smaller. Baryonyx. [11] A 2018 study of buoyancy (through simulation with 3D models) by the Canadian palaeontologist Donald M. Henderson found that distantly related theropods floated as well as the tested spinosaurs, and instead supported they would have stayed by the shorelines or shallow water rather than being semi-aquatic. [21][22][23], In 2003, Milner noted that some teeth at the Natural History Museum previously identified as belonging to the genera Suchosaurus and Megalosaurus probably belonged to Baryonyx. [52], In 1997, Charig and Milner demonstrated direct dietary evidence in the stomach region of the B. walkeri holotype. This crest was triangular, narrow, and sharp in its front part, and was distinct from those of other spinosaurids in ending hind wards in a cross-shaped process. The cervical ribs were short, similar to those of crocodiles, and possibly overlapped each other somewhat. The study also found that the animal had reached sexual maturity at the age of 13 to 15 years, due to a decrease in growth rate at this point. It's bite was several hundred pounds stronger than an Average Bull Shark. . Total Sprint Duration: 2 mins 35secs 1 - 25( Adult: ) . [39] A 2013 beam-theory study by the British palaeontologists Andrew R. Cuff and Rayfield compared the biomechanics of CT-scanned spinosaurid snouts with those of extant crocodilians, and found the snouts of Baryonyx and Spinosaurus similar in their resistance to bending and torsion. Their zygapophyses (the processes that connected the vertebrae) were flat, and their epipophyses (processes to which neck muscles attached) were well developed. If hunting for land prey, stay hidden until your prey come close for you to get, stay crouched in order to not get spotted. The front part of the dentary curved outwards to accommodate the large front teeth, and this area formed the mandibular part of the rosette. .25 - 150 . An apparent gastrolith (gizzard stone) was also found. Charig and Milner maintained that Baryonyx would primarily have eaten fish (although it would also have been an active predator and opportunistic scavenger), but it was not equipped to be a macro-predator like Allosaurus. 10 - 45 minutes( Adult: ) . Its bite force reaches 8000 newtons equivalent to today's spotted hyenas. . The area where the specimen died seems to have been suitable for a piscivorous animal. The ulna had a powerful olecranon and an expanded lower end. The hands had three fingers; the first finger bore a large claw measuring about 31 cm (12 in) along its curve in the holotype specimen. . Now recognised as a member of the family Spinosauridae, Baryonyx's affinities were obscure when it was discovered.

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